Developing support for routing is one of the most significant challenges in ad hoc networks and is critical for the basic network operations. Certain unique combinations of characteristics make routing in ad hoc networks interesting.

First, nodes in an ad hoc network are allowed to move in an uncontrolled manner. Such node mobility results in a highly dynamic network with rapid topological changes causing frequent route failures. A good routing protocol for this network environment has to dynamically adapt to the changing network topology.

Second, the underlying wireless channel provides much lower and more variable bandwidth than wired networks. The wireless channel working as a shared medium makes available bandwidth per node even lower. So routing protocols should be bandwidth-efficient by expending a minimal overhead for computing routes so that much of the remaining bandwidth is available for the actual data communication.

Third, nodes run on batteries which have limited energy supply. In order for nodes to stay and communicate for longer periods, it is desirable that a routing protocol be energy-efficient as well. This also provides also another reason why overheads must be kept low. Thus, routing protocols must meet the conflicting goals of dynamic adaptation and low overhead to deliver good overall performance.

Types of Routing in MANETs

  • Flooding
  • Proactive Routing
  • On-Demand Routing
  • Location-Based Routing

Book: Mobile Ad Hoc Networking by: Stefano Basagni

Web Resource: MANET Routing Protocols

Power Point Presentation: Routing in MANETs

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